Alusi and Knowledge of the Hour

August 30, 2012

Barelwis love to quote a part of Alusi’s Tafsir regarding the hypothetical possibility of knowing the Hour, like Ghulam Rasul Sa’idi has done, but they neglect the other parts of his tafsir where he clearly mentions that the Prophet did not know the moment of the Hour.

He says under the tafsir of 7:187:

وظاهر الآيات أنه عليه الصلاة والسلام لم يعلم وقت قيامها.

And the apparent meaning of the verses is that he (peace and blessings be upon him) did not know the time of the hour.

Answering those who say Holy Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) had no shadow

August 28, 2012


Iman Jalaluddin Suyuti (d. 911 AH) writes: “Hakim Tirmidhi narrated from the chain of ‘Abdur Rahman bin Qais Za’farani, from ‘Abdul Malik bin ‘Abdullah bin al-Walid, from Sayyidna Zakwan that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) had shadow neither in sunlight nor moonlight. (Khasa’is al-Kubra, 1:71)

This narration proves that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) had no shadow and when he did not have shadow he was not bashar.


This hadith is not acceptable and reliable. First, because one of its narrators is ‘Abdur Rahman bin Qais Za’farani, he is called liar by Imam ‘Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal says: his hadith is weak, he is abandoned. Imam Abu Zur’ah calls him kadhdhab (liar). Imam Muslim bin al-Hajjaj says that his hadiths are unacceptable. Imam Abu ‘Ali says he used to fabricate hadiths. Imam Nasa’i calls him as matruk al-hadith (one whose hadiths are abandoned), while Imam Saji says that he was dha’if (weak). (Tarikh al-Baghdad, 10:251-252)

All these comments are reported by Hafiz Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalani in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib. He added that according to Imam ‘Adi, most of his hadiths are not supported by other reliable narrators and Hakim Abu Ahmad says that his hadiths were forsaken, while Imam Abu Na’im Asfahai says that he was nothing. (Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, 6:259)

Secondly, Mulla ‘Ali Qari says: “Hakim Tirmidhi narrated this hadith in Nawadir al-Usul from ‘Abdur Rahman bin Qais, who is criticised. ‘Abdur Rahman narrated it from ‘Abdul Malik bin ‘Abdullah bin Walid, who is unknown. (Sharh al-Shifa’, 2:282, Egypt) So along with a fabricator narrator, this hadith was narrated by a majhul (unknown) narrator too.

Thirdly, Zakwan is a Tabi’i, he did not directly meet the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). Had it been any derivative (far’i) issue, it would have been treated so, but since it is a matter of belief; therefore how one can accept baseless narrations compared to Qur’anic verses and sahih hadiths and how can one found his religion over them. Interesting enough, Imam Suyuti himself writes, at other place, about ‘Abdur Rahman bin Qais al-Za’farani that he was kadhdhab (big liar) and wadhdha’ (fabricator). (Manahil al-Safa fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Shifa‘, p.7) This narration was mentioned in Nawadir al-Usul which was written by ‘Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin ‘Ali al-Hussain (d. 255 AH). Imam Shah Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi states: “Most of the hadiths mentioned in Nawadir al-Usul are unreliable.” (Bustan al-Muhadditin, p. 68)

(Taken from: Nur wa Bashar: ‘Allamah Sarfaraz Khan Safdar)

Prophet Can’t Perform Miracles on their Own

August 27, 2012

A story of the great Ash’ari scholar al-Baqillani:

The Qadi said, “Then the emperor asked me in another gathering, ‘What do you say about the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, peace be upon him?’ I replied, ‘He is the Spirit of Allah and His Word, His slave, Prophet and Messenge. He is like Adam, whom He created from dust, and then Allah said to him, ‘Be!’ and he was.’ (3:59) I recited the text to him.’ He said, ‘Muslim, do you say that the Messiah is a slave?’ ‘Yes,’ I replied, “That is what we say and it is our deen.’
“He said, ‘You do not say that he is the son of God?’ ‘I seek refuge with Allah!’ I replied, ‘Allah has no son and there is no other god accompanying Him.’ (23:91) You are saying something terrible. If you make the Messiah the son of Allah, who then is his father, brother, grandfather, paternal uncle, and maternal uncle?’ listing possible relatives, and he was confused.
“He asked, ‘Muslim, can a slave create give life, heal the blind and leper?’ I replied, ‘He cannot do that. That was all the action of Allah Almighty.’ Then he asked, ‘How could the Messiah be the slave of Allah and create what he created?’ He mentioned all these signs and asked, ‘How could he do all of that?’ I replied, ‘I seek refuge with Allah. The Messiah did not bring the dead to life nor heal the blind or leper.’ He was confused and impatient. He said, ‘Muslim, do you deny this when it is well-known among people and people accept it?’ I replied, ‘None of the people of understanding and knowledge state that the Prophets performed miracles from themselves. Rather a miracle is something which Allah Almighty performs at their hands to confirm them. It is like testimony.’

Fatwas on Bashariyyah of the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)

August 27, 2012

The fuqaha and the ‘ulama have clarified that believing in the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) as a bashar is a necessary part of the religion. If anyone, let alone denying him as a bashar, express his ignorance about the matter, he will turn kafir because he did not learn a fundamental belief, as the reliable and authentic books of the Hanafi Fiqh state: “One who says that he does not know whether the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was a human being or a jinn, he will turn kafir.” (Fusul Imadiyyah, 1350, India; Fatawa Alamgiri, 2:291, Egypt)

This is because acceptance of his bashariyyat is a fundamental belief and this individual  is unaware of it.

‘Allamah Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Baqi al-Zurqani al-Maliki (d. 1122 AH) writes in Sharh al-Mawahib: “If you ask whether having knowledge of his being a bashar and an Arab is a precondition for belief (iman) to be valid or it is fardh kifayah (obligation if performed by some will be considered for all) on parents, for example, if one teaches it to his mature son, his other partner will not be questioned about.

Shaykh Wali al-Din Ahmad bin ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Iraqi al-Hafiz ibn al-Hafiz replied that it is precondition for iman to be valid. So, if a person says: I believe in Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) as Messenger to all creation, but I do not know whether he is from amongst the bashar or angels or jinn, or he says: I do not know whether he is an Arab or ‘Ajam (non-Arab), he will undoubtedly become a kafir as he rejects the Qur’an where Allah says: ‘He is the One who raised amidst the unlettered people a messenger from among themselves.’ (62:2) and ‘nor do I say to you that I am an angel’ 96:50). Such a person also belies what was received by the Muslims generation to generation and it is known fully to all the classes and masses. According to me, there is no difference of opinion in this matter. (Sharh Mawahib, 2:68, Egypt)

وقد سئل الشيخ ولي الدين العراقي هل العلم بكونه صلى الله عليه وسلم بشراً ومن العرب شرط في صحة الإيمان أو من فروض الكفاية؟ فأجاب بأنه شرط في صحة الإيمان، ثم قال: فلو قال شخص: أومن برسالة محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى جميع الخلق لكن لا أدري هل هو من البشر أو من الملائكة أو من الجن، أو لا أدري هل هو من العرب أو العجم؟ فلا شك في كفره لتكذيبه القرآن وجحده ما تلقته قرون الإسلام خلفاً عن سلف وصار معلوماً بالضرورة عند الخاص والعام ـ ولا أعلم في ذلك خلافاً ـ فلو كان غبياً لا يعرف ذلك وجب تعليمه إياه فإن جحده بعد ذلك حكمنا بكفره انتهى

‘Allamah Sayyid Mahmud al-Alusi al-Hanafi (d. 1270 AH) writes: “Shaykh Wali al-Din al-Iraqi was asked whether having knowledge of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) being bashar and an Arab is a condition for iman to be valid or is it fardh kifayah? So, he replied that it is necessary for iman to be valid. He further said: if a person says: I believe in Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) as Messenger to all the creation, but I do not know whether he is from amongst the bashar or angels or jinn, or he says: I do not know whether he is an Arab or Ajam, then there will no de doubt in his kufr as he rejects the Qur’an and denies what was received by the Muslims generation after generation and was essentially known to all the classes and masses. According to me, there is no difference of opinion in this matter. If someone is ignorant and unaware of it, he should be informed of it, and if he denies it afterwards, we will declare him kafir.” (Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani, under vers 3:164, 4:101, Egypt)

(Taken from: Nur wa Bashar, ‘Allamah Sarfaraz Khan Safdar)

Seeking aid from the pious is a despicable act – Bughyat al-Mustarshidin

August 23, 2012

In Ba’Alawi’s Bughyat al-Mustarshidin p. 308, 369, it is related from ‘Allamah Muhammad b. Sulayman al-Kurdi al-Shafi’i [d. 1194 H] that he said,

وأما التوسل بالأنبياء والصالحين فهو أمر محبوب ثابت في الأحاديث الصحيحة وقد أطبقوا على طلبه، بل ثبت التوسل بالأعمال الصالحة وهي أعراض فبالذوات أولى، أما جعل الوسائط بين العبد وبين ربه، فإن كان يدعوهم كما يدعو الله تعالى في الأمور ويعتقد تأثيرهم في شيء من دون الله فهو كفر، وإن كان مراده التوسل بهم إلى الله تعالى في قضاء مهماته مع اعتقاده أن الله هو النافع الضارّ المؤثر في الأمور فالظاهر عدم كفره وإن كان فعله قبيحاً

“Regarding tawassul through the Prophets and pious, it is a liked matter, established in authentic hadiths. Its desirability is agreed-upon. In fact, tawassul is established through good deeds, and they are a’rad (fleeting accidents); thus, with dhawat (substances) a fortiori.

“Regarding making intermediaries between the slave and His Lord:

“If he asks them [i.e. the intermediaries] like he asks Allah in matters [i.e. directly], believing that they bring about effects in a matter and not Allah, then that is disbelief.

“And if the intention is tawassul through them to Allah, the Exalted, in the fulfilment of important matters, while believing that Allah is He who causes all benefit and harm in matters, and the one who brings about effects in matters, then apparently this is not disbelief, although his action is despicable.”

From…-intermediary/ with slight amendments:


Mujaddid Alf-e-Thani’s stance against Bid’ah Hasanah

August 19, 2012

Mujaddid Alf-e-Thani’s stance against Bid’ah Hasanah
(Vol 1) Letter 186 to Khwajah ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Mufti al-Kabuli in Encouraging Adherence to Sunnah and Avoidance of Bid‘ah and that every Bid‘ah is Misguidance

I ask Allah – glorified and exalted is He – with humbleness and contrition, helplessness and poverty, humility and brokenness, in secret and in openness, to not try this feeble one with those who unite near Him or rely on Him in performing every innovated practice of bid‘ah in the religion, of that which was not present in the time of the best of humanity and the time of the rightly guided caliphs (upon him and upon them blessings and peace), even if that act is like the breaking of dawn in clarity, and [I ask Allah] that He does not try us with approving of that innovator, [and I ask this] through the sanctity of the select master and his righteous progeny (upon him and upon them blessing and peace).

Some people say bid‘ah is of two types: good and bad. Thus, good bid‘ah is every righteous deed which arose after the time of our Prophet and the time of the rightly guided caliphs (upon him and upon them blessings and peace) and does not eliminate a Sunnah practice; while bad bid‘ah does eliminate a Sunnah practice.

This needy one has not seen any goodness or light in any bid‘ah, and he has not sensed in them anything besides darkness and dirt. Whoever, in the present time, supposedly finds praise and light in an innovated matter due to a weak insight, he will learn tomorrow after gaining sharpness in vision, that it has no advantage at all besides in regret and loss.

[poetry not translated]

The master of men (upon him blessing and peace) said: “Whoever innovates in this matter of ours what is not of it, it is rejected.” So when a thing is rejected, from where will goodness come to it? He (upon him blessing and peace) said: “To proceed. Verily the best speech is the Book of Allah, and the best conduct is the conduct of Muhammad. The worst of affairs are their innovations, and every innovation is bid‘ah, and every bid‘ah is misguidance.” He (upon him blessing and peace) said: “I enjoin unto you the fear of Allah, and listening and obedience, even if an Ethiopian slave [is your leader]; for indeed those of you who live after me will see much conflict. Incumbent on you is my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs. Remain steadfast on that, and bite on it with the molar teeth. And beware of innovated matters, for indeed every innovation is bid‘ah, and every bid‘ah is misguidance.”

Since every innovation is bid‘ah, and every bid‘ah is misguidance, what is the meaning of goodness in bid‘ah? Furthermore, the purport of the hadiths is that every bid‘ah eliminates a Sunnah, and eliminating [Sunnah] is not restricted to some [bid‘ahs]. Hence, every bid‘ah is bad. He (upon him blessing and peace) said: “No group innovates a bid‘ah except the like of it from the Sunnah is lifted.” Thus, adhering to the Sunnah is better than inventing a bid‘ah. It was narrated from Hassan [ibn Thabit] that he said: “No group innovated a bid‘ah in their religion except Allah removed the like of it from their Sunnahs, and then He will not return it to them till the Day of Resurrection.”

It should be known that some bid‘ahs which the ‘ulama and mashayikh counted amongst good bid‘ah, when carefully considered, it will be realised that it eliminates a Sunnah practice. An example of this is that they consider putting a turban on the dead a good bid‘ah, although it eliminates a Sunnah because it is an addition on the Sunnah number [of garments] for shrouding, which is three garments, and [according to the principles of jurisprudence] an addition is abrogation, and abrogation is the very essence of elimination. Similarly some mashayikh have considered releasing the tail of the turban to the left to be good although the Sunnah is to release it between the shoulders, and this bid‘ah eliminating that Sunnah is manifest containing no obscurity.

Likewise some scholars have considered it good to articulate with the tongue the intention of Salah along with the intention of the heart even though articulating the intention on the tongue has not been established from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), nor his noble companions, nor the great successors, neither in an authentic transmission nor in a weak transmission. Rather they would do the initial takbir after standing. Thus, articulating [the intention] is bid‘ah. And they say that it is a good bid‘ah. This needy one says that this bid‘ah eliminates an obligation let alone a Sunnah, because most people suffice with this degree, of expressing the intention with the tongue, meaning without bringing the intention in the heart, and without care for the heedlessness of the heart from this matter, and thus an obligation from the obligations of Salah, that is the intention [of the heart], is completely abandoned, and leads to the corruption of Salah.

And likewise all bid‘ahs and innovations follow on this pattern because they are additions to the Sunnah, even if only in one aspect, and an addition is abrogation, and abrogation is elimination. Thus, you must restrict yourself to following the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and suffice with imitating the noble companions for they are like stars: whichever of them you imitate, you will be guided. As for analogy (qiyas) and exercising scholarly opinion (ijtihad) it is not bid‘ah at all, because it is a clarifier of the meaning of the texts, and it does not establish an additional matter. So take heed O possessors of intelligence! Peace be on those who follow guidance, and adhere to the practice of the Chosen One – upon him and upon his progeny the best of blessings and the most complete of salutations.


Hadrat Mujaddid Alf-e-Thani  said in another letter:

“As long as man does not abstain from such ‘bid’ah hasanah’ which is in reality ‘bid’ah sayyiah’, he will be deprived of the fragrance of this wealth of Imaan. Today, the comprehension of the tenth has become most difficult because the entire world is drowning in the ocean of bid’ah. People are reclining and taking comfort in the darkness of bid’ah practices. Who today has the ability to eliminate bid’ah and revive Sunnah? The majority of the Ulama of this age are engaged in establishing bid’at and eliminating Sunnah….” 

[Maktoob 54, Daftar 11, addressed to Sayyid Shah Muhammad]

Another letter of profound insight by the Mujaddid of this millenium:

“The happiest, the most fortunate person is he who recovers one of the forgotten sunnats and annihilates one of the widespread bid’ats in a time when irreligiousness is on the increase. We are now in such a time when a thousand years have elapsed after the Best of man kind [Hadhrat Muhammad ], As we get farther from the time of happiness of our Prophet, the sunnats are gradually being covered and, lies being on the increase, the bid’ats are spreading.

A hero is needed who will uphold the sunnats and stop, expel the bid’ats. To spread bid’ats is to demolish Islam. To respect those who make up and commit bid’ats, to deem them great will cause Islam to perish. It is declared in a hadith, “He who says ‘great’ about those who commit bid’ats has helped the demolition of islam”. The meaning of this should be given die consideration on. Utmost energy should be spent in striving for uncovering one Sunnat and annihilating one bid’at. For strengthening Islam any-time, especially when Islam has become so weak, it is necessary to spread the sunnats and demolish the bid’ats.

The former Islamic savants, having seen maybe some beauty in the bid’ats, gave some of them the name of hasana [beautiful]. But this faqir [Imaam-Rabbini means himself] do not follow them in this respect; I do not regard any of the bid’ats as beautiful. I see all of them as dark and cloudy. Our Prophet declared: “All bid’ats are aberration, deviation from the right way”. In such a time as this when Islam has become weak, I see that salvation and escaping Hell is in holding fast to the Sunnat; and destruction of the din is, no matter how, in falling for any bid’at. I understand that each bid’at is like a pickaxe to demolish the building of Islam and all sunnats are like brilliant stars to guide you on a dark night.

May Allahu ta’ala give enough reasonableness to the hodjas of our time so that they will not say that any bid’at is beautiful or permit any bid’at to be committed. They should not tolerate bid’ats even if they seem to illuminate darknesses like the rising of the sun! For, the satans do their work easily outside the sunnats. In the early times, Islam being strong, the darknesses of bid’ats were not conspicuous, but, maybe, along with the world-wide powerful light of Islam, some of those darknesses passed as bright. Therefore they were said to be beautiful. Whereas, those bid’ats did not have any brightness or beauty, either.

But now, Islam having become weak and disbelievers’ customs and even the symptoms of disbelief having become settled [as fashion] among Muslims, each bid’at has displayed its harm, and Islam, without anyone noticing it, has been slipping away. Our hodjas should be most vigilant in this respect, and they should not pioneer the spreading of bid’ats by saying, “it is permissible to do so and so”, or “such and such things is not harmful”, and putting forward the old fatwas. Here is the place for the saying, ‘The din will change in process of time”. It is wrong for disbelievers to use this saying as tongs for demolishing Islam and settling the bid’ats and disbelief.

The bid’ats having covered all the world, this age roosts like a dark night. The sunnats being on the decrease, their lights blink like fire-flies flying here and there in dark night. As the committing of bid’ats increases, the darkness of the night has been increasing and the light of Sunnat has been decreasing. But the increasing of the sunnats would decrease the darkness and increase the light. He who wishes may increase the darkness of bid’at, thus strengthening the devil’s army! And he who wishes may increase the light of Sunnat, thus strengthening the soldiers of Allahu ta’ala! Know well that the end of the devil’s army is calamity, loss. He who is in the army of Allahu ta’ala will attain endless bliss.” (Vol 2:23)


This letter by the Mujaddid, written in response to a letter from Shaikh Hasan-i Barki, encourages to recover the forgotten sunnats and to abstain from bidats.

I begin to write this letter with the Basmala. May hamd (grateful praise) be to Allahu ta’ala. I send my salams to and prayers for the good people chosen by Allahu ta’ala. I was very much pleased to read the letter from my brother Shaikh Hasan. Valuable pieces of knowledge and marifats were written in it. When I understood them, I became quite pleased. Thanks be to Allahu ta’ala, all the knowledge and kashfs which you wrote are correct. They are all agreeable with the Qur’an and hadiths. So are the right beliefs of the savants of Ahl as-sunnat. May Allahu ta’ala keep you on the right way. May He bless you with attaining high grades! You write that you have been striving to do away with the bidats that are so widespread. At such a time as this, when the darknesses of bidats are so prevalent, it is a very great blessing to bring about the annihilation of one bidat and to recover one of the forgotten sunnats. Our Prophet “sall-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam’ states in a sahih hadith: “He who recovers one of my forgotten sunnats will receive as many thawabs as a hundred martyrs will receive!” The greatness of this deed must be inferred from this hadith. But, when doing this, there is an important subtlety to be observed. That is, while trying to recover one sunnat, we should not cause any fitna; one goodness should not give birth to a variety of problems or evils, for we are in the latest time. We are in a century when Muslims are weak and forlorn.

Do your best to educate and to bring up so as to be well-mannered and well-learned the late Mawlana Ahmad’s “rahmatullahi ta’ala ‘alaih’ children. Teach them spiritual and bodily adabs! Be an example for everybody you know and meet and even all your brothers- in-Islam there by obeying the Shariat and holding fast to the sunnat! Tell everybody about the harms of committing bidat, of disbelief! May Allahu ta’ala bless you with the lot of doing good deeds! May He give success to those who strive for the spreading of the Islamic din and for teaching it to the youngsters! May He protect us and our children against going astray by being deceived by the enemies of the din and virtue, by those who strive to demolish the Islamic din and steal the iman and morals of the pure youth, and by those who try to deceive the youngsters through lies and slanders! Amin.

My son! When fitna is widespread and fasads are abundant, it is time to repent and make istighfar. You must keep aloof and not participate in fitna. Fitna is growing and spreading each day. Our beloved Prophet “sallallahu alaihi wa sallam’ said: “As the Doomsday approaches, fitna will increase. It will resemble the increase in darkness as night begins. Many who leave their homes in the morning as Muslim, will return home as kafirs in the evening. While they are Muslim in the evening, they will lose their belief during the night at places of amusement. During such times, to stay at home is better than being involved in fitna. Those who stay aloof are better than those who attack and lead in front. On that day, break your arrows! Leave your weapons and swords! Address everybody with a smiling face and sweet words! Do not leave your house!””

(Vol 3:105)

The Mujaddid said:

“You have asked how it is that I forbid dhikr with loud voice and not condemn many other things which had not existed at the time of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) such as the shirt open in front (libas farji) and pyjamas. Please note that the acts of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) were of two kinds: those that were performed as ibadah, an act of worship, and those that were done as urf and adah, habits and customs. The acts which were done as ibadah, we consider deviations from them to be evil innovations, and condemn them strongly, for they are innovations in religion (din) and must be rejected. But the acts which were done as part of habit and custom, we do not regard deviations from them as innovation, and do not proscribe them. For they do not belong to religion (din); their existence or disappearance depends upon the custom of society rather than religion” (Vol 1:231)

Quotes from Tafasir Showing the Prophet Did not Knew the Qur’an before Birth

August 19, 2012

In addition to what has been posted earlier about Ahmad Yar Khan, and his claim that the Prophet knew the Qur’an before birth. Some proofs showing the opposite:

لاَ تُحَرِّكْ بِهِ لِسَانَكَ لِتَعْجَلَ بِهِ

“Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith.”

It says in Tafsir al-Jalalayn ,

“God, exalted be He, says to His Prophet: Do not move your tongue with it, with the Qur’ān, before Gabriel is through with [reciting] it, to hasten it, fearing to lose it.”

And in Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs ,

“(Stir not thy tongue) to read the Qur’an, O Muhammad, (herewith to hasten it) to hasten the recitation of the Qur’an before Gabriel finishes reciting it to you. This is because the Prophet (pbuh) used to repeat whatever revelations of the Qur’an Gabriel brought down to him before the latter finished a sentence of the Qur’an, out of fear of forgetting what was revealed to him. Allah warned him against doing so.”

And it says in Tafsir ibn Kathir,

“This is Allah teaching His Messenger how to receive the revelation from the angel. For verily, he (the Prophet ) was rushing in his attempts to grasp the revelation and he would be reciting the revelation with the angel while he was reciting it. Therefore, Allah commanded him that when the angel brings some revelation to him he should just listen. Allah would make sure to collect it in his chest, and He would make it easy for him to recite it in the same way that it was revealed to him. Allah would explain it, interpret it and clarify it for him.”

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وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ رُوحاً مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا
مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى مَا الْكِتَـبُ وَلاَ الإِيمَـنُ

“And thus We have sent to you Ruh of Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith.” [42:52]

It says in Tafisr Jalalayn,

{ وَكَذٰلِكَ } أي مثل إيحائنا إلى غيرك من الرسل { أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ } يا محمد { رُوحاً } هو القرآن به تحيا القلوب { مِنْ أَمْرِنَا } الذي نوحيه إليك { مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى } تعرف قبل الوحي إليك { مَا ٱلْكِتَٰبُ } القرآن

“And thus, in the same way that We have revealed to messengers other than you, have We revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), a Spirit, namely, the Qur’ān, by which hearts are revived, from Our command, that [command] which We reveal to you. You did not know, before revelation came to you, what the Book was, [what] the Qur’ān [was], nor faith, that is, its ordinances and [ritual] ceremonies (the negation comments in place of the verb on the action, and what has come after it constitutes two direct objects); but We have made it, namely, the Spirit — or the Qur’ān — a light by which We guide whomever We will of Our servants. And verily you guide, you are summoning [people], by means of what is revealed to you, to a straight path, [a straight] way: the religion of Islam.”

And it says in Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs,

(And thus have We inspired in thee (Muhammad) a Spirit of Our command) i.e. We sent you Gabriel with the Qur’an. (Thou knewest not what the Scripture was) you did not know what the Qur’an was before the coming of Gabriel to you nor did you know how to recite the Qur’an before it came to you, (nor what the Faith) nor did you know the call to Allah’s divine Oneness. (But We have made it) i.e. the Qur’an (a light) an exposition of commands and prohibitions, the lawful and unlawful, the Truth and falsehood (whereby) by means of the Qur’an (We guide whom We will) whoever deserves it (of Our bondmen. And lo! thou verily dost guide) do call (unto a right path) a straight, true religion.

تفسير القرآن/ الفيروز آبادي (ت817 هـ
أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ رُوحاً مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا } يعني جبريل بالقرآن { مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا ٱلْكِتَابُ } ما القرآن قبل نزول جبريل عليك وما كنت تحسن قراءة القرآن قبل القرآن { وَلاَ ٱلإِيمَانُ } ولا الدعوة إلى التوحيد

تفسير بحر العلوم/ السمرقندي (ت 375 هـ
{ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى مَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبُ وَلاَ ٱلإِيمَـٰنُ } يعني ما كنت تدري قبل الوحي أن تقرأ القرآن،

تفسير النكت والعيون/ الماوردي (ت 450 ه
ـ[{ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلاَ الإِيمَانُ } فيه وجهان:
أحدهما: ما كنت تدري ما الكتاب لولا الرسالة، ولا الإيمان لولا البلوغ، قاله ابن عيسى.
الثاني: ما كنت تدري ما الكتاب لولا إنعامنا عليك،

تفسير معالم التنزيل/ البغوي (ت 516
{ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى } ، قبل الوحي، { مَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبُ وَلاَ ٱلإِيمَـٰنُ } ، يعني شرائع الإِيمان ومعالمه

تفسير زاد المسير في علم التفسير/ ابن الجوزي (ت 597 هـ
قوله تعالى: { ما كنتَ تَدري ما الكتابُ } وذلك أنه لم يكن يَعرف القرآن قبل الوحي

تفسير مدارك التنزيل وحقائق التأويل/ النسفي (ت 710 هـ
{ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى } الجملة حال من الكاف في { إِلَيْكَ }. { مَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبُ } القرآن { وَلاَ ٱلإِيمَـٰنُ } أي شرائعه أو ولا الإيمان بالكتاب لأنه إذا كان لا يعلم بأن الكتاب ينزل عليه لم يكن عالماً بذلك الكتاب

تفسير لباب التأويل في معاني التنزيل/ الخازن (ت 725
{ ما كنت تدري } أي قبل الوحي { ما الكتاب } يعني القرآن

التفسير الكبير / للإمام الطبراني ت 360 هـ
وقولهُ: { مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا ٱلْكِتَابُ وَلاَ ٱلإِيمَانُ }؛ أي ما كنتَ تدري قبلَ الوحيِ ما الكتابُ ولا ما الإيمانُ؛ قيل:لأنه كان لا يعرِفُ القرآنَ قبلَ الوحي،

ابو السعود (ت 951 هـ
مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى } قبلَ الوَحي { مَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبُ } أيْ أيُّ شيءٍ هُو[

تفسير جامع البيان في تفسير القرآن/ الطبري (ت 310 هـ
وقوله: { مَا كُنْتَ تَدْرِي ما الكِتابُ وَلا الإيمَانُ } يقول جلّ ثناؤه لنبيه محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم: ماكنت تدري يا محمد أيّ شيء الكتاب ولا الإيمان اللذين أعطيناكهما