Munawwar al-Barelwi, Plagiarizing from a Deobandi Author

Munawwar al-Barelwi, Plagiarizing from a Deobandi Author

Munawwar, famous for his unfound accusations against the scholars of Deoband and shamelessly defending the mass takfir of Ahmad Raza Khan, wrote a short biography of Nasafi, the author of kanz al-daqa’iq. His article “Imam al-Nasafi, the Unforgotten Author” can be found here:

What he unfortunately did not mention, is the fact that he plagiarized most if not all of the information from the Deobandi author Mawlana Muhammad Hanif Gangohi from his book halaat e musannifeen dars nizami. The book can be read online here:…/n165/mode/1up

I will copy and past the article of Munawwar here. My comments will be in red:

Imam al-Nasafi-The Unforgotten Author
Abu al-Barakat, Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Mahmud al-Nasafi is known as ‘hafiz al-deen’. He was born in the village of ‘Nasaf’ from the area of ‘ma wara’ al-nahr’ known as ‘saghd’. His home town ‘Nasaf’ was also known as ‘Nakhshab’. A famous author, righteous and great Hanafi faqih, al-Nasafi studied under the prominent scholars of his era, such as Muhammad bin Abd al-Sattar Karwari known as ‘the sun amongst the scholars’, Ali bin Muhammad bin Ali Hameed al-Din Aziz and Badr al-Din Khawahir Zadah.

The exact above quote can be found on p. 163 right in the beginning when Mawlana Hanif Gangohi starts with his biography of Nasafi. Munawwar also copied the details surrounding his hometown Nasaf which was also known as Nakshhab and the scholars under which he studied. Munawwar even copied the alqaab of those scholars under the paragraph of “tahsil uloom.”

Did Imam al-Nasafi narrate the Ziyadat from Itabi?

The author of Jawahir Mudhee’ah mentioned that al-Nasafi took fiqh from Karwari and narrated the Ziyadat from Ahmad bin Utbi. Mulla Ali Qari concurs on this view. However, Kafawi mentions that it is not possible that al-Nasafi narrated the Ziyadat from Utbi since Utbi died in 589h and al-Nasafi died in 710h or 711h.

Again, the same above text can be exactly found in the Urdu of Ml. Hanif Gangohi book under the paragraph of Sahib Jawahir ki Ghalti. The same biographers and dates are mentioned. He added his own title and the discussion further is taken from Ml. Hanif Gangohi.

His status amongst the jurists

Ibn Kamal Pasha considered him a jurist of the sixth rank i.e. from those jurists who have authority to isolate the weak reports from the stronger ones. Others have however upheld that al-Nasafi was one step away from absolut ijtihad, namely, a ‘mujtahid fi al-madhab’. Not just that, they considered him the final mujtahid in the madhab. In his commentary on the Musallam al-Thubut and on Tahreer al-Usul, Bahr al-Ulum mentions that the latter opinion is not correct thus not reliable.

The exact same introduction, the difference of opinion amongst the scholars about the status of Nasafi, the names of the books and their verdicts can be found under the paragraph Sahib Kanz ka Fiqhi Maqam. Ml. Haneef Gangohi immediately starts with Ibn Kamal Pasha and straight after the sentence he mentions the difference of opinions. The paragraph of Munawwar is fully identical with that of Ml. Haneef.

His year of death
There is controvesy on this issue amongst the scholars. Shaykh Qawwam al-Din Ittifaqi, Mulla Ali Qari and the author of Kashf al-Zunun have held that al-Nasafi died in 701h. Allamah Qasim bin Qutlubugha held that he died after 710h [in his book entitled: al-Asl fi bayani al-wasl wa al-fasl]. Hamawi upheld that he died in 711h on a Fridayh night. Furthermore, Ittiqani mentioned that he passed away in a place called ‘Ayzaj’ and was buried in ‘al-Jalal’. And Allah knows best.

Again, Munawwar took the same sequence in his article as Ml. Hanif Gangohi. After the discussion of the status of Nasafi as a mujtahid he follows with his year of death. Now again, the exact same order of the sentences, the names of the scholars and the ultimate verdict are precisely mentioned by Ml. Gangohi.

His works
Imam Nasafi composed many works that are until today taught and studied worldwide. The renowned Dars-e-Nizami course has always contributed to the indespensible works of Nasafi. Here is a list of some of them;
1- al-Wafi, and its commentary al-Kafi in the branches of law ‘furu’
2- Kanz al-Daqa’iq. This work proves to be an excellent contribution of Nasafi to fiqh. It is originally an abridgement of his ‘al-Wafi’.
3- Matn al-Manar. Again, an undoubtedly comprehensive book unforgotten in Usul al-fiqh.
4- Kashf al-Asrar. His personal commentary on the Manar.
5- Sharh Muntakhab al-Hussami. A commentary on the famous text in Usul al-Fiqh.
6- Musaffa, his commentary on sharh Manzumah Nasafiyah
7- al-Mustasfa sharh al-Fiqh al-Na’fi
8- Sharh al-Fiqh al-Nafi’
9- I’timad al-I’tiqad, his commentary on al-Umdah
10- Fadha’il al-A’mal
11- Tafseer Madarik al-Tanzeel.

In the exact same order, Ml. Hanif Gangohi has mentioned the exact same list of books. Munawwar even copied even the comment “in the branches of law ‘furu’” from Ml. Hanif.

Did he compose a commentary on al-Hidaya?
The author of Kashf al-Zunun listed al-Nasafi to have written a commetary on the famous ‘al-Hidayah’ in the Hanafi school. Taqiy al-Din, in his Tabaqat, mentioned that Bakht ibn Shahnah stated, it is not known whether al-Nasafi has a commentary on al-Hidayah. Moreover, Allamah Ittiqani, in Gayat al-Bayan, mentioned that Imam al-Nasafi did intend to write a commentary on al-Hidaya but Taj al-Sharee’ah requested that he shouldn’t. This is why he then composed the book al-Wafi similar to al-Hidaya and then wrote a commentary to it entitled ‘al-Kafi’.

Again, Ml. Hanif Gangohi mentions the exact same details. Ml. Hanif starts with “Sahib Kashf al-Zunun who mentioned also a sharh of hidaya.” Then he mentions all those names of authors and books which Munawwar also highlighted!

His discipline in Kanz al-Daqa’iq
Imam al-Nasafi sticks to two main points in this work;

1- sticking to the issues of the Zahir al-Riwayah,
2- and not surpassing the ‘mufta biha’ sayngs of the three imams i.e. Abu Hanifa, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani.

However, there are some sayings in the Kanz that are not from the Zahir al-Riwayah and are not from the ‘mufta bihi’ of the three imams. But, how is it exactly possible to find out that such and such issue is not from the Zahir al-Riwayah or the verdicts f the imams? A contemporary scholar, Muhammad Haneef Gangohi has collected those particular issues in the opening of his commentary on the Kanz entitled: ‘Ma’din al-Haqa’iq’.

Again, the above text can be found in the book of Ml. Hanif Gangohi under the chapter “Kanz al-Daqa’iq awr is ke ghayr zahir al-riwaya aur ghayr mufta biha masa’il.”
The sentence “and not surpassing the ‘mufta biha’ sayings of the three imams” can be found in Urdu on p. 164. Ml. Hanif himself starts the discussion about those opinions which are not from the zahir al-riwaya. He himself refers then to his own book Ma’din al-Haqa’iq!
Even the question that Munawwar poses “But, how is it exactly possible to find out that such and such issue is not from the Zahir al-Riwayah or the verdicts f the imams” is plagiarized from Mawlana Hanif since he poses the exact same question to the reader!

The commentaries on Kanz al-Daqa’iq
Over the centuries, many scholars such as Aiyni, Halbi, Kiramni and others have commented on the Kanz but the exposition, clarity and comprehensivenss of Ibn Nujaym’s ‘al-Bahr al-Ra’iq’ is unique in this area.

A list of commentaries on the Kanz:

1- al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, Zayn al-Abideen, known as Ibn Nujaym, d.970h
2- Tabyeen al-Haqa’iq, Uthman bin Ali al-Zayla’i, d.743h
3- Ramz al-Haqa’iq, Badr al-Din al-Ayni, d.855h
4- al-Matlab al-Fa’iq, Badr al-Din Isa al-Diri
5- al-Nahr al-Fa’iq, Siraj al-Din, known as Ibn Nujaym, d.1005h
6- Mustakhlis al-Haqa’iq, Ibrahim bin Muhammad al-Qari
7- al-Fawa’id fi Halli al-Masa’ili wa al-Qawa’id, Mustafa bin Bali, known as Bali Zadah
8- Fat’h Masaliki al-Ramz fi Sharhi Manasiki al-Kanz, Abdurahman Isa al-Umri
9- Sharh al-Kanz al-Daqa’iq, Mulla Miskeen
10-Sharh al-Kanz, Ibn Shahnah al-Halabi, d.921h
11- Sharh al-Kanz, al-Khitab bin Abi al-Qasim al-Qurrah Hasari, d.730h
12- Sharh al-Kanz, Shams al-Din Hasari
13- Sharh al-Kanz, Zayn al-Abideen al-Ayni, d.864h
14- Sharh al-Kanz, Ibn Ganim al-Maqdisi, d.1004h
15- Sharh al-Kanz, Qawam al-Din Kirmani, d.748h
16- Sharh al-Kanz, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Umar al-Salihi, d.950h
17- Sharh al-Kanz, Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Dhiya al-Makki, d.858h
18- Hashiyah Kanz al-Daqa’iq, Muhammad Ahsan Siddiqui Nanutwi, d.1312h
19- Multaqit al-Daqa’iq, Abu al-Ma’arif Muhhamd Inanyatullah shah
20- Hashiyah Kanz al-Daqa’iq, Muhmmad I’zaz Ali, d.1374h
21- Zaheer al-Haqa’iq, Zaheer Ahmad Sahwani, d.1361h (urdu)
22- Ma’din al-Haqa’iq, Muhammad Haneef (urdu)
23- Persion translation by Shah Ahlullah, abrother of waliyullah al-Dehlvi.
24-Tuhfat al-Ajam fi Fiqhi al-Imami al-A’zam, Muhammad Sultan Khan (urdu)
25- Ahsan al-Masa’il, Muhammd Ahsan Siddiqui (urdu)
26- Zaheer al-Haqa’iq, Zaheer Ahmad Zaheeri Sahswani (urdu)
27- Mi’yar al-Haqa’iq, Dhiya al-Din Muhammad al-Husayni (persian)

Munawwar copied again the same list of commentaries mentioned by Ml. Hanif Gangohi. He did not even hesitate to include Deobandi authors in the list, like that of Ml. Ahsan Siddiqi Nanotwi and Ml. Izaz Ali! Ml. Hanif Gangohi starts under the paragraph which he titled kanz al-daqa’iq awr is ki shuruhat. Ml Hanif mentions the exact part as Munawwar that many scholars have written commentaries of Kanz, like Halabi, Ayni and Kirmani. Even though Ml. Hanif mentions others like Maqdisi and Zayla’I, the fact that Munawwar mentions those men and then starts with mentioning the best sharh and the list of commentaries is no coincidence. Ml Hanif does the same and mentions that the best sharh remains al-bahr al-ra’iq by Ibn Nujaym and cites a poem. His list of commentaries has the same order of Munawwar. He even left out the dates of the death of those scholars at number 6 to 9 because it was not mentioned by Ml. Hanif.

Ml. Hanif listed 25 commentaries. Up until number 20 Munawwar follows the same titles in the same order. He put the sharh of Inayatullah before Hashiya of Ml. Izaz Ali. Then he mentions the same titles except that Munawwar mentioned the Zahir al-Haqa’iq for a second time at number 26. Munawwar seems to have added another last title in Persian. He calls the sharh of Bali Zadah as Fawa’id (number 7) while the word is dara’id.
Conclusion: Munawwar plagiarized the above written article from a Deobandi author Ml. Hanif Gangohi, a scholar who graduated from Dar al-Ulum Deoband. Munawwar follows the same order as Ml. Hanif. Munawwar mentions the same discussions, the same details, the same biographers and titles of books, in the exact same order like it is mentioned in the book of Ml. Hanif. He even copied sentences from Ml. Hanif while the reader thinks they were his own words.

Munawwar should have referred to the book of the Deobandi scholar Ml. Hanif but failed to do so. However, we forgive him because the Barelwis are more busy with takfir and spreading hatred amongst the Muslims, while the Deobandis are publishing valuable books.

Alhamdulillah, the fayz of Deoband has spread to such an extent that even Barelwis cannot move further without studying the works of the Deobandis.


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